Perhaps surprising to some, malaria is common in many urban centers, and as populations grow this problem may become more common. While the correlation between population density and malaria rates is still being studied, the increasing numbers of individuals moving through urban environments provide unique obstacles to malaria control. With an estimated 50% of Africans projected to live in cities by 2025, radically changing demographic patterns will offer new and unexpected challenges to malaria control.
Climate change, another man-made condition, is also a hotly debated and influential factor that will contribute to future patterns of malaria transmission. Emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are changing the planet's climate, raising temperatures and altering weather patterns. Climate change will significantly affect malaria control, and influences both the potential spread and future reduction of transmission. At this point in time, no one can predict how and where the greatest changes will occur.